In Britain death rates from several important causes, particularly circulatory and respiratory diseases, rise markedly during the colder winter months. This close association between temperature and mortality suggests that climate change as a result of global warming may lead to a reduction in excess winter deaths in the future. This paper begins with a brief review of the literature on the links between cold conditions and health. It goes on to develop statistical models of the associations between monthly mortality rates for the period 1968 to 1988 for England and Wales, and temperature. Other factors, particularly the occurrence of influenza epidemics are also taken into account. Highly significant negative associations were found between temperature and death rates from all causes and from chronic bronchities, pneumonia, ischaemic heart disease and crebrovascular disease. The statistical models developed from this analysis were then used to compare death rates for current conditions with those that might be expected to occur in a future warmer climate. The results indicate that the higher temperatures predicted for 2050 might result in nearly 9000 fewer winter deaths each year with the largest contribution being from mortality from ischaemic heart disease. It should be stressed that these are preliminary estimates that might change when further research is able to take into account a number of additional factors affecting the relationship between mortality and climate. (authors' abstract)
Langford, I. H and Bentham, G. 1993. The potential effects of climate change on winter mortality in England and Wales. Global Environmental Change (GEC) working Paper 93-25. Center for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment.
This committee assembled in response to a request from USAID to 'identify and analyze key problems of agricultural practices that contribute to environmental degradation and result in declining agricultural production in humid tropic environments.' Although the authors note that the committee lacked demographic expertise, significant attention was placed on population factors. Country profiles on Brazil, C?te d'Ivoire, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, The Philippines, and Zaire are included.
Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid TropicsDOI: https://doi.org/10.17226/1985
This book uses a political ecology approach to examine population growth, economic, and political organization as determinants of land clearing patterns in the Southern Ecuadorian Amazon from a historical perspective. He presents a conceptual framework for considering different types of forest-clearing patterns based on different combinations of these factors.
Rudel, T. 1993. Tropical deforestation: Small farmers and land clearing in the Ecuadorian Amazon. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Population Pressure, Agricultural Productivity and Land Degradation in Rwanda: An Agenda for Collaborative Training, Research and Analysis
This working paper addresses natural resources management in an environment of population pressure, agricultural productivity, and land degradation in Rwanda.
Campbell, David J.; Olson, Jennifer M.; Berry, Len. 1993. Population Pressure, Agricultural Productivity and Land Degradation in Rwanda: An Agenda for Collaborative Training, Research and Analysis. Rwanda Society-Environment Project, Working Paper 1.
The Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia was established in May 1993 to support training and research in environmental and resource economics. Its goal is to strengthen local capacity for the economic analysis of environmental problems so that researchers can provide sound advice to policymakers. The program uses a networking approach to provide not only financial support but meetings, resource persons, access to literature, publication outlets, and opportunities for comparative research across its ten member countries. These are Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, China, Papua New Guinea and Sri Lanka.
The Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia (EEPSEA)
This paper evaluates theories that address links between land degradation in developing countries and population change.
Jolly, C. L. 1993. Population change, land use and the environment. Reproductive Health Matters 1(1): 13-25.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0968-8080(93)90058-2
This paper offers an empirical test of the impact of human ecological patterns and other known correlates on tornado occurrence. It uses the National Severe Storms Forecast Center's information on tornadoes from 1950 through 1990 and employs ecological data from the U.S. Bureau of the Census and the EPA. The results show that metropolitan and other urban counties have higher odds of tornado occurrence than rural counties, and that the probability of occurrence of tornadoes increases with increases in the number of previous tornadoes. The paper assesses the meaning of this finding for demographers, atmospheric scientists, engineers, and disaster managers. (Author's abstract)
Aguirre, B. E., Saenz, R., Edmiston, J., Yang, N., Agramonte, E. and Stuart, D. L. 1993. The Human ecology of tornadoes. Demography 30(4): 623-633.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2061810
A summary of papers presented at the workshop in December 1991.
Jolly, C. and Torrey, B. B., (eds.). 1993. Population and land use in developing countries. Report of a Workshop, December 1991. National Academy of Sciences.DOI: https://doi.org/10.17226/2211
Harrison, P. 1992. The third revolution: Environment, population and a sustainable world. London; New York: I.B. Tauris and Company Ltd.
This article focuses on two issues that have thus far received only limited attention. The first of these concerns the role of population growth in future global warming. With a few notable exceptions (e.g., NAS, 1991; Smil, 1990), available scientific assessments comment only briefly on the significance of population growth. No substantial effort has been devoted to quantifying the role of population or to comparing its effect with the contributions of other determinants of global warming. A second issue is the relative contributions of the developed and developing parts of the world to climate stabilization. (from Introduction)
Bongaarts, J. 1992. Population growth and global warming. National Council for Science and the Environment.